5. Conclusion

5.      Conclusion

Elements of the actual wakar water tower and testing sites that might ensure success:

1) The nylon and polypropylene fibers
They act as a scaffold for condensation
It also act as a structure for the  of dew form to flow into a basin at the base of the structure.

2) The mean minimum during the coldest season of Africa is 6° C and the mean maximum rarely exceeds 26° C.



5.1    Summary of findings
Factors affecting condensation:

Condensation will form on any object when the temperature of the object is at or below the dew point temperature of the air surrounding the object

Singapore Relative Humidity: 80% …….. 24°C

Temperature  (°C )
Humidity ( % )
Relative Dew Point (°C )
27
75
22
27
45
13
16
75
11
16
45
4
2
75
-2
2
45
-9



Definition Of Dew Point Temperature
Dew point temperature is defined simply as the temperature at which water vapor, when cooled, will begin to condense to the liquid phase





Elements of the actual wakar water tower and testing sites that might ensure success:

1) The nylon and polypropylene fibers
They act as a scaffold for condensation
It also act as a structure for the  of dew form to flow into a basin at the base of the structure.

2) The mean minimum during the coldest season of Africa is 6° C and the mean maximum rarely exceeds 26° C.
BUT
The range of a minimum temperature of Singapore is  of 23 °C and a maximum of 32 °C.

Elements of our tower that might contributed to failure:
1) Nylon mesh too big
2) Setup too small
3) Design not ergonomically fit for water to drip.
4) Structure might be too hot > 24°C




5.2    Practical Applications
Our prototype can be used in area or country which experiences drought or have very little excess to a water source. (e.g. Africa, Saudi Arabia, India, Kenya, Bangladesh)

India
India’s growing population is putting a strain on the country’s water resources. The country is classified as “water stressed” and a water availability of 1,000-1,700 m3/person/year. According to UNICEF, in 2008 88% of the population had access and was using improved drinking water sources.“Improved drinking water source” is an ambiguous term, ranging in meaning from fully treated and 24 hour availability to merely being piped through a city a sporadically available. This is in part due to large inefficiencies in the water infrastructure in which up to 40% of water leaks out.


Kenya
Kenya, a country of 36.6 million, struggles with a staggering population growth rate of 2.6% per year (by comparison, the US population growth rate is 0.899% and the population growth rate in India is 1.31%). This high population growth rate has pushed Kenya’s natural resources to the brink of destruction. Much of the country suffers from a severe arid climate, with only scarce few areas enjoying rain and access to water resources. Deforestation and soil degradation have made the available surface water typically highly polluted and difficult to retain. The government has been unable to afford to develop water treatment or distribution systems, leaving the vast majority of the country without access to water.

Bangladesh
Historically, water sources in Bangladesh came from surface water contaminated with bacteria. As a result of drinking infected water, infants and children suffered from acute gastrointestinal disease, causing significant burden of mortality.



5.3    Areas for further study
-Is there a better material to provide optimum condensation? This is to ensure that the best material is used and thus there will be more water collected.

-Is there a more sturdy and flexible material for the structure for the tower?
We do not know if there is any stronger and better material than rattans as the rattans are very difficult to bend and to keep it in shape.

-Is there a more secure material to use besides duct tape?
We secure the rattans together using strings and duct tape, but this is proven to be not as effective thus what other kind of adhesive can we use to hold the tower in place?

-How do we make the tower waterproof?
Some of the strings are absorbing the water collected so how can we make sure that the water droplets flows down into the bowl without any obstructions.
-What is the optimum conditions for the condensation to occur in our tower?

When we test it in the forest, there is a constant change in the environment thus how can we ensure that the environment we place our tower in is the most effective and have the best conditions present for condensation.

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