1.Introduction

1.1    Engineering Problem

Many countries in the world are unable to get clean water to survive. In fact, because of unclean water, many of the people in these countries suffer from diseases such as Arsenicosis and Cholera. Thus we decided to make this Wakar Water Tower to help these less fortunate people get a source of clean water.


1.2    Engineering Goal

To retrieve water from the air and make it usable by us human as a solution to the near shortage of water in Singapore using a water harvester.

1.3    Specific Requirements
(a) Collect clean water through condensation
  -> Nitrates are at low level
(b) Reduce Cost of retrieving water by not building a factory, which cost $400 million.
(c) Easy transportation by human means. This is lighter and thus could be carried by about 5 people.

(d) Reduce working time to build this instead which can take up to 5 years.
(e) Size not exceeding 8m by 9m and weight not more than 60 kg.

1.4        Alternative solutions

Alternative Solutions
1) The 'magic mesh' that can make water out of thin air: Researchers reveal system to harvest morning fog for drinking and farming

By changing the size of the holes and fibres, researchers say they have already improved the system by 500%

Fences made from a simple system of suspended mesh structures are placed on hilltops in areas with persistent fog and prevailing westerly winds.
When the fog arrives, the water condenses in the mesh and drip down pipes to water butts, where is can be fed directly into watering systems or used by locals as drinking water.
Variations in the mesh spacing as well as the size and the wettability of the fibers in the mesh all affect the volume of water that can be collected each day.

Design 2
Water-Collecting Wind Turbine
A new type of wind turbine harvests not only electricity from the wind, but clean water from the air, by condensing humidity from even the driest climes. a harvester powered by a 30-kilowatt solar panel and a water condenser that can connect to an existing power grid. The turbine works like a typical wind turbine, with three upwind blades spinning to generate electricity. Then in a separate process, air is sucked into the turbine's nose and sent through a cooling compressor, which extracts moisture from the air. Water droplets drip down stainless steel pipes inside the turbine shaft and are collected at the base, which houses a filtration and purification system. The system is powered by the wind turbine.

Design 3
Air Well
An air well is a structure or device that collects water by promoting the condensation of moisture from air. Designs for air wells are many and varied, but the simplest designs are completely passive, require no external energy source and have few, if any, moving parts. All air well designs incorporate a substrate with a temperature sufficiently low so that dew forms. Dew is a form of precipitation that occurs naturally when atmospheric water vapour condenses onto a substrate. It is distinct from fog, in that fog is made of droplets of water that condense around particles in the air. Condensation releases latent heat which must be dissipated in order for water collection to continue.



Best solution and reason
The design we have chose is a Vase like structure made out of Bamboo/Rattan as they are strong yet light. They will be connected in lattice framework,like a plus sign, and tied together with strong cable strings. This is to ensure the tower is able to support any weight placed on it as the force will be distributed equally throughout the tower with this crisscrossing of rattan. The inside will be lined with plastic nylon mesh that have it’s own waterproof feature, eg: waxy, that allows the condensed water to slide down to the bottom to be collected. We could also install a fan at the top opening to blow the water down. This will also cool the mesh and allow more water to condense on the tower. We can also add several LEDS to indicate the position of the tower so that nearby people can easily locate the tower or aircrafts can spot the tower from far





Reasons:
  1. Easy to build
  2. Simple design
  3. Able to provide shade and place for interaction.

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